Law is the system of rules and regulations that control human behavior in a society. It is important for keeping peace and order, and resolving conflicts. A person who studies or practices law is called a lawyer, jurist or attorney. Law is a complicated subject, and there are many different kinds of laws and legal concepts.
Law can be divided into several categories, including intellectual property (IP) law; property law; tort law; criminal law; and constitutional law. IP laws protect people’s rights to things they create, like art and music. Property law defines the rights and obligations people have when they buy, sell or rent homes, land (called real property) or objects such as cars or furniture. Tort law helps people make claims for compensation when they are hurt or have their property damaged. Criminal law aims to stop people from breaking laws, and punishes those who do. Constitutional law deals with the important rights of a government and its relationship to the people.
There are also a number of theories about the nature of law. One theory, proposed by John Austin, is that law is “commands, backed by the threat of sanctions, from a sovereign to men as political subjects”. Other theories, like those of Jeremy Bentham and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, argue that law reflects essentially moral and unchangeable laws of nature.
Many cultures have their own systems of law. Some, such as the Jewish Halakha and the Islamic Shari’a, explicitly rely on religious precepts. These are often interpreted through the use of Qiyas, Ijma and precedent. Other cultures rely more on further human elaboration to provide comprehensive legal systems. This is usually done through the work of scholars and judges.
Law is a complex subject, and many articles in this website deal with its different aspects. For articles on the practice of law, see legal profession; legal education; and legal ethics. For articles on the law’s relationship to other areas of life, see censorship; crime and punishment; and war. This article also contains a section on legal terminology, including the term “appeal” which means to request that another court consider whether a previous trial was conducted correctly. Other terms include “arraignment” which is the process of bringing a defendant into court to be told of the charges against him or her, and “in forma pauperis” which is permission from a judge for a person to sue without paying court fees on claim of poverty or indigence. Generally, these requests are granted only for cases of serious injury or loss. This article also explains the difference between civil and common law. Unlike the American system of civil law, which uses statutes and precedent to decide cases, most other countries still use common law to determine how to interpret their own statutes. This article provides an overview of the different types of laws used in the United States. This includes state and federal laws. In addition, this article covers many other specific types of laws that are found throughout the world.