Automobiles are wheeled motor vehicles that are primarily used for transportation. They are vehicles with four wheels and usually seat one to eight people. They are also used for off-road purposes. While there are many definitions of cars, these common ones cover the basics, including the fact that they are used to move people and goods.
Development of external combustion engines
There are a variety of potential uses for external combustion engines in automobiles. The Stirling engine is one example. It uses an externally vented combustion chamber to heat up air. The resulting combustion products have a lower temperature than those of internal combustion engines. This enables these engines to operate with minimal heat losses through exhaust gases.
Early experimenters tried using hot gaseous products to operate pumps. The development of a gas engine began in 1820, when hydrogen and air were exploded in a chamber. The resulting vacuum moved a piston. The earliest gas engines were extremely heavy, but they contained the basic elements for more modern devices. In 1824, French engineer Sadi Carnot published an important pamphlet, explaining the fundamentals of internal combustion.
Impact of automobiles on the environment
Automobiles have an impact on the environment in many ways. The impact starts during the manufacturing process and continues until a vehicle ends up in a junkyard. Automobiles emit CO2 and many wastes. A vehicle’s fuel consumption accounts for the majority of its environmental impact. Fuel consumption accounts for up to 90 percent of the greenhouse gases produced during its life cycle.
Cars also emit particulates that enter the atmosphere and water, affecting the food chain and changing the pH of water sources. Some of these chemicals may also affect the ozone layer, reducing the protective shield for the planet against UV rays.
Design of modern cars
The design of modern cars is usually handled by a large team of engineers and designers. These individuals work in close collaboration with the engineering teams responsible for all other aspects of the vehicle, including the powertrain, chassis, interior, and production. The team usually includes an exterior and interior designer, as well as a color and materials designer.
Modern cars have evolved from the classic design of the 1950s. A classic car typically has an elegant form and is based on good design fundamentals, simple surfacing, and high-quality materials. The design of the instrument panel has also evolved and is now far more functional. Despite the complexity of the instrument panel, it still has clean form and clean graphics.
Design of cars for off-road use
Designing cars for off-road use requires different techniques from on-road vehicles. In order to have a good performance, the car must be stable and large enough to traverse rough terrain. Off-road vehicles also need to be highly fuel-efficient, so manufacturers try to come up with vehicles that can meet these needs.
Fortunately, off-road vehicles don’t need to look like go-anywhere tanks. They can be stock or have subtle aftermarket modifications. When driving off-road, however, the car must be driven slowly.